Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition

Volume 3. Page 31-40
Published 11th June, 2018
ISSN: 2536-7080
https://doi.org/10.31248/RJFSN2018.041

Full Length Research

Quality evaluation of plantain-African Yam Bean flour blends and sensory properties of its cooked (amala) paste

Akinjide O. Akinsola*, Victoria O. Segilola, Etuonu S. Oloso, and Oludunke J. Durojaiye

Department of Home Economics, Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Received 27th April, 2018; Accepted 23rd May, 2018

*Correspondence: Dr. Akinjide O. Akinsola, Department of Home Economics, Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria. Email: akinsola4gold@gmail.com. Tel: +2348034800734.

Copyright © 2018 Akinsola et al. This article remains permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

ABSTRACT

Enrichment of plantain which is largely minerals and fibre rich food with moderate amount of protein and oils will provide a cooked (amala) paste with adequate nutrients dense meal. Quality evaluation of plantain-African Yam Beans (AYB) flour blends and sensory properties of its amala paste was evaluated for staple food production. Plantain was processed into flour and blends with AYB flour in ratio of 100:0, 85:15, 80:20, and 75:25 to give four samples. The proximate composition, functional and pasting properties, minerals profile, and sensory properties of the composite flour and its amala was determined using standard methods. The result of proximate composition showed that values for moisture content, protein, fat, fibre, ash, and carbohydrate ranged from 9.57 to 9.93, 14.43 to 18.24, 2.82 to 3.56, 6.78 to 7.8, 4.01 to 4.75, and 58.23 to 62.35%, respectively. Result of functional properties revealed that as AYB flour substitution level increases, the functional properties of the composite flour improved, while minerals profile result showed that only calcium and iron values of the elements determined marginally increased as substitution level of AYB increases compared to control sample. The study revealed that improvement in the nutritional quality and functional properties could be achieved with fortification of plantain amala with AYB flour addition. Based on the study sensory attributes result, it can be concluded that acceptable plantain-AYB composite flour and its amala can be produced from the blends of plantain-AYB flour at 20% inclusion level.

Key words: African yam beans, composite flour, nutrient dense product, paste, plantain, sensory attributes.

INTRODUCTION

Plantain is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa, and is an important staple food in Central and West Africa. It is a basic food crop and cheap source of energy in Nigeria (Adeniyi et al., 2006; Faturoti et al., 2007). Several food consumption surveys in Nigeria identified plantain among the major starchy staples (Ogechi et al., 2007; Odenigbo, 2012; Okorie et al., 2015). According to FAO (2005), over 2.11 million metric tons of plantains are produced in Nigeria annually. Plantains can be consumed in the unripe, fairly ripe, ripe and overripe stages. Various parts of plantain have been studied for various uses: alcohol production from ripe fruit, medicinal use for treatment of gastric ulcer, and the pseudo-stem as a source of fibre. There is a large consumption rate of these crops in Nigeria, either as ‘dodo’ (fried ripe fruit), ‘dodo Ikire’ (from over-ripped fruit), chips (fried unripe fruit), or processed to produce plantain flour and local beer (Babayemi et al., 2009). Plantain is rich in carbohydrate, dietary fiber, irons, vitamins, and minerals. This nutritious food is ideal for diabetics, children, pregnant women, and excellent for weight control, slow in the release of energy after consumption with a low glycermic index, high in potassium and good for diabetic patients (Ayodele and Erema, 2011; Baiyeri et al., 2011). Plantain is also a good source of Iron, and β – Carotene (Pro-Vitamin A) as reported by Ogazi (1988). It can also be a good supplement for marasmus patients. Plantain contains small amount of serotonin which has the ability to dilate the arteries and improve blood circulation. Its regular consumption helps to cure anemia (low blood level) and maintain a healthy heart (USDA Nutrient Database, 2010; Okorie et al., 2015). A diet of unripe plantain is filling and can also be a good inclusion in a weight loss diet plan (Oke et al., 1998).

African yam bean (AYB) is classified as an underutilized legume because of lack of adequate information on its nutritional components (Adebowale et al. 2009). According to Adewale and Odoh (2013), Nigeria holds a prominent position for AYB production in Africa. However, lack of information on the composition and utilization of tropical plants is the major problem limiting their utilization rather than shortage (Balogun and Fetuga, 1986). Rural producers of bean pudding (moinmoin) and bean cake (akara) sometimes replace cowpea with African yam bean (Enujiugha et al. 2012; Soetan, 2017). The nutritional, genetic, medicinal and other potentials of AYB have been recognized but it has not received adequate research attention. Underutilized legumes such as AYB would contribute immensely to food security in Nigeria, due to increasing demand for plant proteins in lieu of animal protein (Soetan, 2017). Alternative source of food production was advocated by Oke and Adeyemi (1991) in tackling food crises. The prospect of blending tubers, roots and plantain with cereals and legumes for the production of household food products is receiving considerable attention (Onoja and Obizoba, 2009; Okorie et al., 2015). This might make the products to be nutritious, relatively cheap and affordable to the rural poor to stem-off hunger and malnutrition. Considering the health benefits of plantain, its incorporation as composite blend with AYB in the preparation of its cooked paste will help in enhancing the nutritional and health status of its (weight watch, obesity, and diabetes mellitus) consumers. This study was undertaken to evaluate nutritional quality and sensory properties of plantain flour enriched with AYB flour for its cooked (amala) paste, a local popular staple food.

MATERIALS AND METHOD

Materials

Freshly harvested plantain used for this study was obtained at a local farm in Awe town, while African yam bean was obtained at the genetic resources unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, IITA, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Preparation of plantain flour

Freshly harvested, matured plantain of about three kilograms was sorted, washed in portable water, peeled and sliced to 1 cm thickness using manual kitchen slicer. The sliced were transferred into stainless pot that already has water diluted with ascorbic acid solution for about 5 min. The solute was removed; allow to drain at room temperature (28±2oC) for 5 min, dried in an air oven (Model: DC 500; Serial number 12B154) at 55±5oC for 48 hours, milled in a laboratory hammer mill (Fritsch, D-55743, Idar-oberstein-Germany), sieved using 250 μm screen, packed in a low density polyethene bag, and store at room temperature (28±2oC).

Preparation of African yam beans (AYB) flour

The Africa yam beans, after removing particles and defective seeds were thoroughly washed in clean water. The seeds were boiled for 30 min, drained, cooled and dehulled by hands rubbing within two palms, after which the Africa yam beans cotyledon were dried in a Genlab drying cabinet (Model: DC 500; Serial number: 12B154) at 60±5°C for 48 hours, winnowed, milled and sieved as described for plantain flour above.

Formulation of plantain-AYB composite flour

The formulation of composite flour of plantain-AYB flour was mixed in proportion of 100%; 85:15%; 80:20%; 75:25%, and coded as sample A, B, C, and D. Each sample was blended using a Kenwood mixer (Model: HC 750D, Kenwood, UK) to produce composite flour sample A to D. Sample A served as control and contained 100% plantain flour, while samples B, C, and D consist of plantain flour and AYB flour.

Chemical composition of plantain-AYB composite flour

The proximate analysis (moisture content, protein content, ash content, fat content and crude fiber) of the samples were analyzed according the official methods of analysis described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemis (2005), while carbohydrate was calculated by differences.

Functional properties of plantain-AYB composite flour

Bulk density of the samples were determined according to Wondimu and Malleshi (1996) method, while solubility index and swelling power of each sample was determined as described by Leach et al. (1959). Water absorption capacity of each sample was determined using the method described by Beuchat (1977), while the method described by Okezie and Bello (1988) was adopted for wettability index determination. Least gelatinization concentration was determined according to the method of Onwuka (2005).

Pasting characteristics of plantain-AYB composite flour

A Rapid Visco Analyser, RVA (Model RVA-SUPER3, USA) was used to determine the viscosity of the composite flours according to Ikegwu (2010) method. About 3 g of sample were weighed into a dried empty canister, and then 25 mL of distilled water was dispensed into the canister containing the sample. The suspension was thoroughly mixed so that no lumps were obtained and the canister was fitted into the rapid visco-analyzer. A paddle was then placed into the canister. The measurement cycle was initiated by depressing the motor tower of the instrument. Samples were pasted according to a programmed heating and cooling cycle. The dispersions were heated from 50 to 95oC with constant stirring at 2.67 Hz, and were held at 95oC for 2.5 min (breakdown). Then, the block temperature was cooled to 50oC and held for 2 min. The total cycle was 13 min. Parameters estimated were peak viscosity, setback viscosity, final viscosity, trough, breakdown viscosity, pasting temperature and time to reach peak viscosity.

Mineral profile of plantain-AYB composite flour

The mineral element determination was carried out as described by AOAC (2005) method using an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICPAES, USA, TL6000 Model).

Production of plantain-AYB cooked (amala) paste

Three litres of water was boiled in a pot on a gas cooker. 100 g of plantain-AYB flour sample was poured in the 200 ml boiling water, and stirred continuously until smooth consistency thick dough was attained. It was removed from fire and a little quantity of hot water was added and re-heats to boiling point, to allow the paste cook properly. The paste was taken off the flame, stirred continuously until smooth consistency thick dough was attained. All the four paste obtained were used for sensory evaluation.

Sensory attributes of plantain-AYB composite flour

The method described by Iwe (2002) was used. The sensory panelists consisted of twenty consumers who are familiar with whole plantain amala. They were asked to rate the products in terms of colour, appearance, aroma, taste, texture, flavour, crispness and overall acceptability using a 9-point Hedonic scale (1=dislike extremely, 5= neither like nor dislike, 9= like extremely).

Statistical analysis

All data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 for analysis of variance, while Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) was used to separate means where there is a significant difference. Triplicate determinations were carried out for each sample

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The result for proximate composition of the composite flour of plantain-AYB flour blends is presented in Table 1. Statistical differences (p<0.05) were observed in all the parameters investigated compare to the control (100% plantain). The values for moisture content, protein, fat, fibre, ash and carbohydrate contents ranged from 9.57 to 9.93, 14.43 to 18.24, 1.71 to 3.56, 6.78 to 7.83, 4.01 to 4.75, and 57.61 to 62.35%, respectively. The low moisture content obtained in this study would enhance its keeping stability by avoiding mould growth and other biochemical reactions. This result is similar to that of Idowu et al. (2017) who reported moisture content range of 8.8 to 9.4% for cocoyam-cowpea flour blends. Water is a universal solvent that dissolves other substances, carries nutrients and various materials round the body for optimal function of organs (Okeke and Adaku, 2009). Moisture contents are valuable in preservation of food materials. Researches have shown that the lower the moisture contents of food material, the higher is its keeping quality (Ajayi and Adedire, 2007). Increased in protein content was observed with increased substitution level of AYB flour. This could be attributed to high percentage of protein content in AYB which agreed with the work of Animashaun et al. (2017) who work on quality of pasta fortified with roasted sesame flour. Proteins play a vital role in organoleptic properties of foods/feeds, boost immune system, and play a key role in cell division and growth (Aremu et al. 2006; Okorie et al. 2015). The values obtained for crude fat in this study were within the range reported by Adeyeye et al. (1999) for crude fat values. Fats are needed for insulation and protection of vital organs and for hormone production.


Table 1


Lipids provide very good sources of energy and aids in transport of fat soluble vitamin, insulates and protects internal tissue and contribute to important cell processes (Pamela et al. 2005). Fagbemi and Oshodi (1990) reported that fat provides energy and is essential as it carried along fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, while relatively high fat foods could be undesirable because fat can promote rancidity in foods leading to development of unpleasant and odorous compounds (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). The crude fibre result in this study is lower than that of Kay (1987) who reported crude fibres range of 5.2 to 5.7%, and higher than that of Adeyeye et al. (1999) who reported crude fibres of 1.61 to 2.38%. Fibre is important for the removal of waste from the body thereby preventing constipation and many health disorders. The viscose and fibrous structure of dietary fibre controls the release of glucose with time in the blood, which helps in proper control and management of diabetes mellitus and obesity (Gurr and Asp, 1994; Aleixandre and Miquel, 2008; Animashaun et al., 2017). Dietary fibres slow down rate of glucose absorption into bloodstream and reduce risk of hyperglycemia (Okeke and Adaku, 2009), and has numerous medical importance like lowering blood cholesterol, maintain blood sugar level and helps in reducing body weight (Soetan and Olaiya, 2013). The ash values, which is an indication of their mineral content, of this study is similar to that of Kay, (1987) who reported ash ranging from (2.8 to 3.2%) in AYB, and that of Adeyeye et al. (1999) who reported ash range of 2.06±0.03 to 2.36±0.05% for different AYB breeds.

Dietary ash is useful in maintaining acid-base balance of the body system. This means that the composite flour or paste of plantain-AYB flour would be richer in terms of mineral content than the whole plantain flour. The result of the study shows that there was a corresponding decreased in carbohydrate content as AYB flour was added. This could be attributed to high percentage of protein content in AYB flour which agreed with the work of Makinde and Akinoso (2014). The carbohydrate content ranged from 57.61 to 62.35%. Carbohydrate, apart from being a good source of energy, they are needed for metabolism and oxidation of fats in the body (Omoyeni and Adeyeye, 2009). Carbohydrate supplies energy to cells such as brains, muscles, blood, and contributes to fat mechanism, acts as mild natural laxative, and spares proteins as an energy source (Gordon, 2000; Idowu et al., 2017).

The result of functional properties of flours from plantain-AYB flour blends is shown in Table 2. Statistical differences (p<0.05) were observed in all the samples. The bulk density, solubility index, swelling power, water absorption capacity, wettability, and least gelation concentrate of the samples ranged from 0.64 to 0.68 g/cm3, 3.67 to 4.14 g/cm3, 5.36 to 5.73 g/cm3, 1.28 to 1.88 g/cm3, 10.63 to 11.52 g/cm3, and 69.5 to 73.5oC, respectively. All the samples were not significantly different (P>0.05) from one another. The bulk density was found to increase marginally with increase in the level of substitution. The change in bulk density is very important in determining packaging requirement and material handling of food products. Although high bulk density is important due to the packaging advantage it offers flour products (Abass et al., 2009), low bulk density could be an advantage in foods where high nutrient density to low bulk is desired. This is because the lower the bulk density value, the higher the amount of flour particles that can stay together and thus increasing the energy content that could be derivable from such diets (Oke et al., 2016). In terms of Solubility index, values ranged from 3.67 to 4.14 g/cm3. The increase in the solubility of the flour blends might be due to increase in the protein content of the flour blends. Solubility is an index of protein functionality such as denaturation and its potential applications (Omueti et al., 2009). This is however in agreement with the work of Omueti et al. (2009) who work on solubility of complementary diets developed from soybean, groundnut and crayfish.


Table 2


Swelling power of the plantain-AYB composite flours ranged from 5.36 to 5.73. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the samples. Decrease in swelling power was observed with increase in substitution level. Moorthy and Ramanujam (1986) reported that the swelling capacity of flour granules is an indicator of the extent of associative forces within the granule. This also explains the amount of water needed to change a given amount of flour from its powered form to its viscoelastic form (Daramola and Osanyinlusi, 2006). Swelling and water absorption capacities are important parameters which ultimately determine sample consistency (that is solid, semi-solid, or liquid) and are dependent on the compositional structure of the sample (Dengate, 1984; Ayo-Omogie and Ogunsakin, 2013). Water absorption capacity of the flours ranged from 1.28 to 1.88 g/cm3, with sample A having the lowest and sample D had the highest value. Water absorption capacity (WAC) is the ability of flour to absorb water and swell for improved consistency in food. it is desirable in food systems to improve yield and consistency and give body to the food (Osundahunsi et al., 2003). The high WAC observed in the flour samples could be due to the high protein content of the flour due to addition of AYB flour, which has high affinity for water molecules (Yusuff et al., 2008). It has been suggested that flours with such high water absorption capacity as seen in this study will be very useful in bakery products, as this could prevent staling by reducing moisture loss.

Wettability index of the composite flour ranged from 10.63 sec in sample A to 11.63 sec in sample D. Wettability time was regarded as the time required for all the particles to be wetted. Wettability index is the ability of one gramme of the sample dropped from a height of 15 mm on to the surface of 200 ml distilled water contained in a 250 ml beaker at room temperature (30±2oC) to wet per second. Least gelation capacity (LGC), which is the lowest protein concentration at which gel remains in the inverted tube, the range was from 69.50 to 73.50oC. It was observed that gelation temperature increased with increase in substitution level of AYB flour. The increase in the LGC of the flour samples might be due to break down of starch into high amount of amylose and amylopectin molecules (enzymic breakdown of carbohydrates) as well as protein hydrolysis during various processing methods employed (Mbaeyi and Onweluzo, 2013).

The pasting characteristics of plantain-AYB flour blends are presented in Table 3. The pasting properties of the samples for peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity, set-back viscosity, peak time, and pasting temperature ranged from 220.32 to 234.13 RVU, 165.61 to 168.95 RVU, 52.14 to 65.18 RVU, 271.32 to 278.11 RVU, 88.30 to 93.45 RVU, 5.12 to 5.22 min, and 81.34 to 85.20oC, respectively. Statistical difference (p<0.05) was observed for peak, trough, breakdown viscosity, final and setback viscosity, peak time and pasting properties of the blends. Pasting properties influence the quality and aesthetic properties of foods since they affect texture, digestibility and end use of starch-based food commodities (Onweluzo and Nnamuchi, 2009). Peak viscosity which is an index of the ability of starch-based foods to swell freely before their physical breakdown (Sanni et al., 2006; Adebowale et al., 2012) ranged from 220.32 to 234.13 RVU. The fact that the peak viscosity of the blends increased as the level of AYB flour increased and may be indicative of reduced starch content (Osungbaro, 1990). The relatively high peak viscosity obtained in this work may indicate that the flour blends are suited for products requiring high gel strength and elasticity (Adebowale et al., 2005; Abioye et al., 2011). A high trough viscosity gives an indication of the ability of the paste to withstand breakdown during cooling. The trough viscosity of the blends ranged between 165.61 and 168.95 RVU. A high trough viscosity gives an indication of high ability of the paste to withstand breakdown during cooling (Adebowale et al., 2008). It therefore follows that the higher the level of AYB flour, the lower the ability of the pastes obtained from the blends to withstand breakdown during cooling.


Table 3


Breakdown viscosity value is an index of the stability of starch (Adebowale et al., 2008). The breakdown viscosity values ranged from 52.14 to 60.32 RVU. The inclusion of AYB flour may lead to reduced stability of pastes obtained from plantain since there was a reduction in the breakdown viscosity as AYB flour increased. Oduro et al. (2000) explained that starch with low paste stability or breakdown shows weak cross linking among the granules as shown in this study. Final viscosity, which is the change in viscosity after holding cooked starch at 50oC ranged from 271.32 to 278.11 RVU. The final viscosity decreased with increase in AYB flour substitution except the 25% substitution level (sample D). This shows that AYB flour hinders the formation of viscous pastes (after cooking and cooling) and resistance of the paste to shear stress during stirring (Adebowale et al., 2008). Final viscosity is the most commonly used parameter to define the quality of a particular starch-based sample, as it indicates the ability of the material to form a viscous paste or gel after cooking and cooling as well as the resistance of the paste to shear force during stirring (Adeyemi and Idowu, 1990). As more and more AYB flour was added to plantain flour, the final viscosity was on the increase suggesting higher resistance of paste to shear force during stirring. The variation in the final viscosity might be due to the sample kinetic effect of cooling on viscosity and the re-association of starch molecules in the samples (Nwokeke et al., 2013).

The setback viscosity of the flour blends ranged from 86.56 to 93.45 RVU for sample D and C, respectively. Setback region, the phase where after cooling of the mixture a re-association between starch molecules occurs to a greater or lesser degree, affects retrogradation or re-ordering of the starch molecules and texture of the food products (Michiyo et al., 2004). The higher the setback value, the lower the retrogradation during cooling and the lower the staling rate of the product made from the flour samples (Adebowale et al., 2008). This result showed that the cooked paste of plantain-AYB flour will have lower retrogradation and staling rate. High set back viscosity is associated with weeping or syneresis (Nwokeke et al., 2013). The higher the setback value, the higher the retrogradation during cooling and the lower the staling rate of the product made from such flour samples (Adeyemi and Idowu, 1990). Addition of plantain-AYB flour blends could not have much effect in reducing the amylose retrogradation of the cooked paste, but the blends could be an advantage in reducing retrogradation in fully gelatinized food product. Peak time is the time at which the peak viscosity occurs in minutes and a measure of the cooking time of the flour (Adebowale et al., 2008). The peak time of the blends ranged between 5.12 and 5.22 min with sample B recording the lowest and sample D had the highest. The pasting temperature of the blends ranged from 71.34oC in sample D to 74.50oC in sample A. The pasting temperature is one of the pasting properties which provide an indication of the minimum temperature required for sample cooking, energy costs involved and other components’ stability (Shimelis et al., 2006), while a higher pasting temperature implies higher water binding capacity and higher gelatinization (Numfor et al., 1996).

The result of mineral composition of the flour from plantain-AYB flour blends is shown in Table 4. The minerals profile of plantain-AYB composite flour blends values ranged from 30.24 to 30.90 mg/g, 37.61 to 42.00 mg/g, 58.10 to 68.83 mg/g, 89.30 to 112.60 mg/g, 988.50 to 1292.13 mg/g, and 28.40 to 29.90 mg/g for calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium, respectively. Calcium, the highest score was sample B having 30.90 mg/g, while the least was sample A with 30.24 mg/g. Samples were not significantly different (P>0.05) from each other for calcium content. There was marginal increase in the level of calcium with the addition of AYB flour. Weaver and Heaney (2006) reported that calcium is a micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing, which performs diverse biological function in the human body. It serves as a second messenger for nearly every biological process, stabilizes many protein and in deficient amounts is associated with a large number of disease. Calcium is an important component of intracellular processes that occur within insulin responsive tissues like skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Alteration in calcium flux can have adverse effects on insulin secretion which is a calcium-dependent process (O’Connell, 2001). The Food and Nutrition Board (1980) recommended a dietary allowance of 360 and 1200 mg calcium for infants and young adults. A deficiency in calcium could lead to rickets or osteoporosis. The iron values ranged from 37.61 to 42.10 mg/g. The lowest was sample A, while sample D had the highest. The samples with the highest score were significantly different (P>0.05) from samples A and B.


Table 4


Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin and it is critical to the proper function of the immune system and the production of energy (Chen et al., 2010). Iron has several functions in the human body which includes; being a constituent of the haemoglobin molecule – 70%, myoglobin stored in muscles, an activating molecule of several enzymes and found in storage molecules such as ferritin and hemosiderin. Iron deficiency, anemia – characterized by small red cells (microcytosis) with low haemoglobin (hypochromia). The values obtained in this study are more than the recommended daily allowance of 18 mg reported by Ikpeme-Emmanuel et al. (2010). The magnesium values ranged from 55.50 to 68.83 mg/g. The sample with the highest was sample A and was significantly difference (P<0.05) from other samples. Magnesium is essential for all biosynthetic processes including glycolysis, formation of cyclic AMP, energy dependent membrane transport and transmission of the genetic code. Greater than 300 enzymes are known to be activated by magnesium ion (Weaver and Heaney, 2006). Magnesium is a cofactor of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase and it also modulates glucose transport across cell membranes (O’Connell, 2001). Magnesium is essential for good health because it is necessary for normal muscle and nerve functions, production of ATP, DNA and protein and vitamin D metabolism (Idowu et al., 2017).

Phosphorus is involved in several biological processes such as: bone mineralization, energy production, cell signaling and regulation of acid-base homeostasis. Phosphorus is an essential element which plays an important role in multiple biological processes such as maintenance of cell membrane integrity and nucleic acids, generation of ATP, maintenance of acid-base homeostasis, among others (Penido and Alon, 2012). The study indicates significant decrease of this mineral as AYB substitution level increased. Potassium, K, values of the composite flour ranged from 988.50 mg/g in sample D to 1292.13 mg/g in sample A, while sodium contents, Na, ranged from 28.40 to 29.90 mg/g for sample A and C, respectively. There is no correlation between K and Na obtained in this study. The higher amounts of K than Na in the samples investigated are considered of comparative advantage. This is because intake of diets with higher Na to K ratio has been related to the incidence of hypertension (Chen et al., 2010).

The sensory scores of the cooked paste prepared from plantain-AYB flour blends are shown in Table 5. The sensory attributes of the plantain-AYB (cooked paste) amala values ranged from 6.40 to 7.50, 6.20 to 7.10, 6.10 to 7.40, 5.90 to 6.80, and 6.10 to 7.30 for colour, flavour, taste, texture, and overall acceptability, respectively. Mean score obtained for colour ranged from 6.4 for sample C to 7.5 for sample A, while that of flavour ranged from 6.3 for sample A to 7.3 for sample C. The result showed that there is significant difference (p<0.05) between the samples in terms of colour and flavour. Flavour plays an important factor in consumer’s preferences and products, hence sample C would be most preferred than other AYB flour substituted samples. All the panelists did not show total dislike for any of the sample colour and flavour. The mean scores obtained for the taste ranged from 6.1 for sample B to 7.4 for sample A, while that of texture ranged from 6.2 for sample D to 7.3 for sample A. Substituting plantain with AYB flour up to 20% level significantly (p<0.05) affect the texture and flavour of the cooked paste. Overall acceptability of the plantain amala ranged from 6.1 to 7.3, which indicated that all the plantain amala were accepted by the panelists, which is greater than 5.0. Sample with 20% AYB flour substitution level had the highest mean score than other AYB flour substituted samples; this might be the perfect blend to make cooked paste from plantain-AYB flour blends.


Table 5

CONCLUSION

This study has revealed that the nutritional status of plantain flour could be improved by the addition of AYB flour, and its cooked paste. Based on the study results, blending of plantain-AYB flour for the production of its cooked paste significantly (p<0.05) enriched it nutritional quality, and improved functional properties of the samples. The study revealed that nutritionally dense paste could be produced and accepted with the addition of 20 % AYB flour to whole plantain flour for its amala production.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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